There are 29 state parks, 26 ecological stations, 18 experimental stations, 16 state forests, two state nature reserves and 209 forest-tree nurseries in the State of São Paulo. Concerned about environmental protection in these areas, the state public authority has implemented initiatives dedicated to the improvement and restoration of the environmental quality.

Green areas within the state are protected by the State of São Paulo Environmental Protection Department (SMA), through the  Forestry Institute  and the  Forestry Foundation, including partnerships with international institutions such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco).

Environmental questions

The enterprises or activities that use natural environmental recourses are required to obtain an environmental permit to set up in the State. This procedure enables the public authorities to enforce mechanisms assuring preservation, improvement and recovery of the environment. In addition, it is a means of identifying the environmental effects of each enterprise, showing their managers how to best adapt their activities. 

Issue of necessary permits, authorizations, licenses and other documents is done through the State of São Paulo Environmental Company (Cetesb), a body of the SMA acting through environmental agencies located in all regions throughout the State. Visitors to the Cetesb website can also consult other enterprises and activities requiring issue of environmental permits, the legislation covering the topic, the permit fees and the progress of requests and intervention in the analysis by the body, among other information. 

Depending on the area of activity, the environmental permit is subject to specific regulatory rules, as in the case of  sugar ethanol enterprises. The Departments of Agriculture and Food Supply (SAA) and the Environment have divided the State into agro-environmental zones, stipulating areas considered unsuitable. with restrictions, limitations and adequate for implementing enterprises. 


The State of São Paulo has a predominantly tropical climate, with hot, humid summers and dry winters. The climate varies relatively little between the different regions inland and the temperatures allow outdoor activities the year over.


  • Spring: September 23 to December 21
  • Summer: December 21 to March 20
  • Fall: March 20 to June 21
  • Winter: June 21 to September 23

The Capital

In the State capital during the summer, rainfall is frequent and of high intensity. Around 80% of the rainfall registered in the São Paula metropolitan area occurs between October and March, Pluviometric indices recored in the winter months are significantly lower.

Coastal Area and State Interior

The coastal areas are characterized by the tropical rainy climate, without a dry season and average rainfall during the driest month being more than 60 mm. The highest average rainfall is recorded in the coastal lowlands and at the foot of the Serra do Mar.

The central region of the State of São Paulo is characterized by the tropical high altitude climate, with rains in the summer and the average temperature of the hottest month being 22°C. The municipalities of Campinas, São Carlos and Piracicaba are located in this region of the State.

Represented by municipalities such as São José do Rio Preto and Araçatuba, the São Paulo's northwestern region is much hotter, characterized by a dry winter during which the average temperature of the coldest month is above 18°C.

In the southern region, in particular in the municipalities surrounding Itapeva, some centers have a subtropical climate, with hot summers and no dry season in the winter with an average temperature of 18°C during the coldest month.

At higher altitudes, the mountain regions do Mar and Da Mantiqueira have mild summers and year round rainfall. In these regions, the hottest month of the year has average temperatures lower than 22°C. The average temperature in the month of July is 11.5°C. Campos do Jordão is the most famous winter tourism destination in the State of São Paulo.

Weather forecasts and visibility conditions in the various regions of the State of São Paulo can be found at  Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (National Meteorological Institute) (Inmet) and Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research) (CPTec).

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